Glossary

The CSIRO Annual Report 2012-13 glossary.

Books and chapters: Includes monographs, complete or individual chapters, usually published by a commercial publisher.

Conference papers: Includes published conference papers and edited proceedings.

Divisional Capability Review Terms of Reference: The assessment criteria for the Divisional Review Panel to assess the performance of a Capability Division within CSIRO includes:

(1) Quality of the science directed at objectives:

Benchmark

Sustained scientific leader – well recognised in the international research community for this.

Strong

Able to set and sustain new scientific/technical directions within the international research community.

Favourable

Able to maintain a good position in the international research community ‘pack’; not a scientific leader except in niches outside mainstream areas.

Tenable

Not able to set or sustain independent scientific/technical directions – a sense of being continually a follower.

Weak

Declining quality of scientific/technical output compared with other research groups. Often a short-term ‘fire-fighting’ focus.

(2) Probable impact on end-user partners:

Benchmark

The research results are such that they are used to set the pace and direction of commercial, environmental, community or policy development – recognised in industry or the community for this.

Strong

The research results are such that they enable commercial, environmental, community or policy development that distinguishes user organisations from peers or competitors.

Favourable

The research results are such that they enable commercial, environmental, community or policy development that organisations use to improve their position relative to peers or competitors.

Tenable

The research results are such that they are used by organisations for commercial, environmental, community or policy development that maintains, but does not improve, their position relative to peers or competitors.

Weak

The research results are such that they are not able to be used by organisations to even maintain their position relative to peers or competitors.

Enterprise Strategy Measures: ESMs are designed to provide evidence of our performance in four dimensions that are critical to the success of CSIRO’s Strategy 2011–15.

Epigenetics: Epigenetic changes are changes, usually chemical modifications, of DNA or its associated chromosomal proteins that do not alter the actual sequence of the DNA but that can be inherited through cell divisions and sometimes across generations. These epigenetic modifications control the way in which genes are switched on or off, can persist throughout life, and can be influenced by a number of different factors including the environment, stress, diet, behaviour and toxins.

Flagship Review Terms of Reference: The assessment criteria for a Flagship Review Panel to assess the performance of a Flagship includes:

(1) Quality of the science directed at Flagship objectives:

Benchmark

Sustained scientific leader – well recognised in the international research community for this.

Strong

Able to set and sustain new scientific/technical directions within the international research community.

Favourable

Able to maintain a good position in the international research community ‘pack’; not a scientific leader except in niches outside mainstream areas.

Tenable

Not able to set or sustain independent scientific/technical directions – a sense of being continually a follower.

Weak

Declining quality of scientific/technical output compared with other research groups. Often a short-term ‘fire-fighting’ focus.

(2) Probable impact on end-user partners:

Benchmark

The research results are such that they are used to set the pace and direction of commercial, environmental, community or policy development – recognised in industry or the community for this. The Flagship is on track to achieve and exceed the goals necessary for the declared outcome.

Strong

The research results are such that they enable commercial, environmental, community or policy development that distinguishes user organisations from peers or competitors. The Flagship is on track to meet its timelines and milestones toward output goals.

Favourable

The research results are such that they enable commercial, environmental, community or policy development that organisations use to improve their position relative to peers or competitors. The Flagship will contribute outputs on the path to cited goals.

Tenable

The research results are such that they are used by organisations for commercial, environmental, community or policy development that maintains, but does not improve, their position relative to peers or competitors. The Flagship will make contributions towards meeting its milestone and output timelines.

Weak

The research results are such that they are not able to be used by organisations to even maintain their position relative to peers or competitors. The Flagship will not significantly advance Australia toward meeting the national challenge.

Granted patents: Once a patent application has been examined and satisfies various patentability criteria it becomes a granted patent. It remains a granted patent until the end of the patent period (normally 20 years) provided renewal fees are paid.

Inventions: This is the number of inventions where one or more patent/applications are current. Accordingly an invention might include a granted patent that is near the end of its life (e.g. 20 years), or it might include a provisional patent application that has only recently been filed. Furthermore, one invention might relate to a patent application in one country only, or it might relate to over 20 patents/applications in different countries covering the one invention.

Journal articles: Includes journal articles and other items published as part of a journal (for example, an editorial or book review).

Key Executive Actions: KEAs are designed to focus the Board and the Executive Team’s attention on the most important priorities of the Organisation.

Live patent cases: A live patent case is where either a patent application or a granted patent exists. It does not include cases that have lapsed, expired or been withdrawn. Applications may include provisional applications, Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) applications, and applications pending in Australia or foreign jurisdictions.

New inventions: This is the number of new inventions where an application (normally an Australian provisional application) is filed for the first time to protect that invention. A major implication of filing that provisional application is that it provides the applicant with an internationally recognised priority date. A small percentage of CSIRO’s new inventions are filed as US provisional applications.

PCT applications: International PCT applications are a ‘temporary’ phase in any international patenting process and these have a life span of 18 months. This type of application is very common in major international corporations and is used by CSIRO when it considers its invention may have wide commercial application. In view of the 18-month time span, it is reasonable to approximate that two-thirds of the reported number were filed in the previous 12-month period.

Science excellence: An assessment of the competitiveness of CSIRO’s research capabilities. It recognises CSIRO’s science (for example, total citations) and excellence (for example, citation rates). It tends to be output orientated and includes lagging metrics relating to research publication performance (bibliometrics), esteem measures, such as awards and expert-peer reviews.

Science health: An assessment of the sustainability and vitality of research capabilities. It is a useful analysis in addition to ‘excellence’, in that it enables a focus on the likely future performance of capabilities. The set of metrics used to assess health is broader and more input focused than those used to assess excellence. It includes research staff mix, funding and connections with other institutions, including collaborations with other research organisations, as well as the broader innovation system.

Sponsored students: Students are deemed to be sponsored if they receive a full or partial scholarship paid from CSIRO funds to pursue a research project leading to a PhD or Honours/Masters degree. This excludes CSIRO employees, whose study expenses are considered to be ‘training and development’.

Supervised students: Students are deemed to be supervised if they have a CSIRO staff member appointed officially by the University as the supervisor for their research project. Normally, CSIRO staff are joint supervisors in conjunction with a university academic.

Technical reports: Includes individually authored chapters as well as whole reports that are subject to peer review and usually publicly released.

Technological output: An assessment of the Organisation’s excellence in delivering relevant research results to its users. This involves working on the right problems, doing projects well and excellence in transferring our research results. One metric for this, given this context, is CSIRO’s patenting activity, as this provides an understanding of its technological output and potential impact.

Twenty global peers: Applied science research organisations from around the world that are comparable to CSIRO include:

Abbreviation Name Country
ASTAR Agency for Science, Technology and Research *** Singapore
Battelle Battelle Memorial Institute United States
BNL Brookhaven National Laboratory [commercialisation activity
through Brookhaven Science Associates]
United States
CAS Chinese Academy of Sciences [formerly Academia Sinica] China
CSIR India Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (India) India
CSIR SA Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (South Africa)** South Africa
DTI Danish Technological Institute (Teknologisk Institut er Danmarks)** Denmark
TNO Dutch Organization for Applied Scientific Research (Nederlandse
Organisatie voor Toegepast Natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek)
Netherland
ETRI Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute Korea
Fraunhofer Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft Germany
CNRS French National Centre for Scientific Research
(Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
France
Helmholtz Helmholtz Germany Germany
ITRI Industrial Technology Research Institute Taiwan
INRA Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique France
JST Japan Science and Technology Agency *** Japan
NRC National Research Council Canada
AIST National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology Japan
SIRIM SIRIM Berhad [formerly Standards and Industrial Research
Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM)**
Malaysia
SP SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden
(SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut)**
Sweden
VTT VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Teknologian Tutkimuskeskus VTT) Finland

Note due to data limitations some agencies could not be included in the analysis for different measures. Please refer to the following notes for more information:

* indicates that the organisations were not included in the impact citation analysis.

** indicates that the organisations were not included in the intellectual property analysis.

*** indicates that the organisation was not included in both the impact citation and intellectual property.

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