A glossary of terms used in the CSIRO Annual Report 2016-17.

Books and chapters: Includes monographs, complete or individual chapters, usually published by a commercial publisher.

Conference papers: Includes published conference papers and edited proceedings.

Ecosystem services: The important benefits for human beings that arise from healthily functioning ecosystems, notably production of oxygen, soil genesis, and water detoxification.

Germination sheets: Provide full details of a seed’s germination test, plus additional information, such as timing of start of germination, and how germination has progressed over the germination period.

Granted patents: Once a patent application has been examined and satisfies various patentability criteria, it becomes a granted patent. It remains a granted patent until the end of the patent period (normally 20 years), provided renewal fees are paid.

Inventions: This is the number of inventions where one or more patent/applications are current. Accordingly, an invention might include a granted patent that is near the end of its life (for example, 20 years), or it might include a provisional patent application that has only recently been filed. Further, one invention might relate to a patent application in one country only, or it might relate to over 20 patents/applications in different countries covering the one invention.

Journal articles: Includes journal articles and other items published as part of a journal (for example, an editorial or book review).

Live patent cases: A live patent case is where either a patent application or a granted patent exists. It does not include cases that have lapsed, expired or been withdrawn. Applications may include provisional applications, Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) applications and applications pending in Australia or foreign jurisdictions.

New inventions: This is the number of new inventions where an application (normally an Australian provisional application) is filed for the first time to protect that invention. A major implication of filing the provisional application is that it provides the applicant with an internationally recognised priority date. A small percentage of CSIRO’s new inventions are filed as United States provisional applications.

Phased array: A set of multiple connected antennas which work together as a single antenna. CSIRO’s phased array feeds are made up of 188 individual receivers, positioned in a chequerboard-like arrangement. Alongside the receivers are low-noise amplifiers, which greatly enhance the weak radio wave signals received.

PC laboratory: A physical containment (PC) laboratory is specifically constructed to prevent the contamination of the worker or the environment by harmful organisms. Depending on the level of risk associated with the microbial work, different levels of containment are certified by regulators, the highest containment level being PC4, which involves work with life-threatening diseases, such as involving the Ebola virus.

PCT applications: International PCT applications are a ‘temporary’ phase in any international patenting process and these have a life span of 18 months. This type of application is very common in major international corporations and is used by CSIRO when it considers its invention may have wide commercial application. In view of the 18-month time span, it is reasonable to approximate that two-thirds of the reported number were filed in the previous 12-month period.

Pulsar: A rotating neutron star that emits a focused beam of electromagnetic radiation.

Recordable Injury Frequency Rate: This is calculated as the sum of Lost Time Injuries per million hours worked plus Medical Treatment Injuries per million hours worked.

Record cards: Technical data about a biological specimen, such as collection site information, fumigation records and oil profiles.

Science excellence: An assessment of the competitiveness of CSIRO’s research capabilities. It recognises CSIRO’s science (for example, total citations) and excellence (for example, citation rates). It tends to be output-oriented and includes lagging metrics relating to research publication performance (bibliometrics), esteem measures, such as awards, and expert-peer reviews.

Sponsored students: Students are deemed to be sponsored if they receive a full or partial scholarship paid from CSIRO funds to pursue a research project leading to a PhD or Honours/Master’s degree. This excludes CSIRO employees, whose study expenses are considered to be training and development.

Supervised students: Students are deemed to be supervised if they have a CSIRO staff member appointed officially by the university as the supervisor for their research project. Normally, CSIRO staff are joint supervisors in conjunction with a university academic.

Technical reports: Includes individually authored chapters as well as whole reports that are subject to peer review and usually publicly released.

Technological output: An assessment of the organisation’s excellence in delivering relevant research results to its users. This involves working on the right problems, doing projects well and excellence in transferring our research results. One metric for this, given this context, is CSIRO’s patenting activity, as this provides an understanding of its technological output and potential impact.

Type specimen: The specimen that was originally used to name a species or subspecies or that was later designated as the basis for that name.

Wide-field phased-array feeds: Radio telescopes use specialised cameras, called receivers, to detect and amplify radio waves from space. Receivers with a larger field-of-view are called wide-field. ‘Phased array feed’ receivers are made up of 188 individual receivers, positioned in a chequerboard-like arrangement. Alongside the receivers are low-noise amplifiers, which greatly enhance the weak radio wave signals received.

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