Underground hydrogen storage can provide a safe and effective way to store larger quantities of hydrogen, in order to stabilize the energy system against fluctuations on supply and demand over longer periods of time. Since there are no suitable salt deposits in Victoria for creating salt caverns (one form of underground storage), depleted gas fields are a possible alternative, and are attracting attention and research effort around the world. These two separate pre-feasibility projects have investigated the options for underground storage in depleted gas fields in the onshore part of the Otway sedimentary basin. CO2CRC's project centers on the Naylor depleted gas field. Lochard Energy's project has looked at several depleted gas field options in the region, including McIntee, Lavers and Croft. The aims in each separate project have been to identify scientific and technical challenges to underground hydrogen storage, and to screen possible storage sites for their suitability for a full feasibility study.
Australia has significant potential for the generation and distribution of hydrogen, and if that eventuates, there will need to be a commensurate amount of storage capacity. Salt deposits suitable for creating salt caverns are not available in a number of well-populated areas of Australia, and so there is a focus on the options for hydrogen storage in depleted gas fields. There is a lot of experience with underground gas storage and with CCS in the onshore part of the Otway basin in SE Australia, as well as pipelines and other infrastructure, and the two projects on underground hydrogen storage build upon this knowledge base. The intention is to evaluate the feasibility of establishing a pilot site for underground hydrogen storage.
CSIRO, CO2CRC, Lochard Energy
CSIRO has collaborated with various partners in separate investigations in this region and has contributed in-kind expertise and resources. CO2CRC's pre-feasibility work in the Naylor field has been funded by BeyondH2 and supported by member organisations of the CO2CRC. Lochard Energy's pre-feasibility work on several depleted fields has been internally funded.
The two separate projects (with CO2CRC and with Lochard Energy) have done desktop studies of geology, reservoir engineering, geochemistry and microbiology in relation to their specific depleted gas fields of interest. Work has also been done to evaluate the requirements and designs for surface facilities and processing, and to scope out the issues around regulatory approval and social license. Field and laboratory work involving microbial sampling and analysis has also been conducted with Lochard Energy. The next stage of each of these projects is to get support for a full feasibility study of specific sites, building towards a decision on whether to pursue a pilot-scale storage of hydrogen in a depleted gas field.
The Sir Samuel Griffith Centre is a 6-green star, 6000-m2 teaching and research building designed to operate independently of the electricity grid and generate zero carbon emissions in operation. The Centre is powered by a 376-kW solar array, with energy stored in a battery and as hydrogen able to power the building for several days of zero sunshine.
Hydrogen is generated by a 200-kW (peak) alkaline electrolyser and stored in solid form as metal hydride (storage capacity - 120 kg of hydrogen), at near-ambient temperature and pressure.
Education Infrastructure Fund, Griffith University, Queensland Government
Operational since 2013. Currently undergoing upgrades to the inverters, battery and fuel cells.
This project seeks to:
The details are being compiled into a proprietary infrastructure planning tool for exploitation by the industry and planning teams in government.
Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd's Federal Science and Technology Program (executed by CNL)
On-going, multi-year project.
This project seeks to provide high-level assessment of hydrogen blending in distribution gas networks. More specifically the project will:
The goal is to:
Ensure safety of decarbonized energy distribution infrastructure, especially materials degradation due to gaseous hydrogen exposure.
National Labs: Argonne National Laboratory, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories. Industry stakeholder: Southern Company Services.
Total project $800 k, DOE share - $600 k
Started in August 2020 and ended in March 2022.
Key findings from the project include:
The project aims at using common infrastructure for ammonia storage and port services, for an efficient logistic and transport of the product. Ammonia was chosen as the final product for export markets because of the existing infrastructure and equipment for storage and distribution.
Solar Ammonia Chile SpA
European Consortium, with the collaboration of GIZ-Germany in this development stage
The project consists of the deployment of a green hydrogen pilot plant and the use in applications within the university campus, to create and transfer capabilities, build human capital and promote the development of the hydrogen industry in the Biobio region. Renewable energy from the university’s micro-grid will be used for small scale green hydrogen production. The hydrogen obtained will be stored and used for two purposes: power to power through a back up generation system, and power to mobility, through the implementation of a refueling station and the retrofit of electric vehicles with fuel cells to run on green hydrogen.
Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción (UCSC)
This project received a subsidy of 800,000 USD from the Biobío Regional Government through a Regional Development National Fund.
The project is currently under construction and is expected to start operating in Q4 2023
An electrolyzer is producing green hydrogen powered by a 9 KW photovoltaic power supply system installed on the same site and by renewable energy from the grid. The green hydrogen is stored and then injected into the natural gas network in the cities of Coquimbo and La Serena. The hydrogen content will be progressively increased from 3% up to 20% in volume. A reduction of 340 tons of carbon dioxide per year is expected.
H2GN is the first project in Chile and Latin America to blend green hydrogen into a natural gas distribution network.
GasValpo and Marubeni
1 million USD total investment
The projects is currently in operation. Started operation in Nov 2022, Deployment of the 0.15 MW electrolyzer for the green hydrogen production and injection system in a volume of 3%.
Advanced Clean Energy Storage uses a 220-megawatt bank of electrolyzers and intermittent renewable energy to produce hydrogen, store it in salt caverns (two 4.5 million barrel), and deliver that hydrogen for future dispatchable generation. The scale of deployed electrolyzers as well as the use of salt caverns to store hydrogen are both significant innovations.
Advanced Clean Energy Storage will capture excess renewable energy when it is most abundant, store it as hydrogen, then deploy it as fuel for the Intermountain Power Agency’s (IPA) IPP Renewed Project—a hydrogen-capable gas turbine combined cycle power plant that intends to incrementally be fueled by 100 percent clean hydrogen by 2045.
Mitsubishi Power Americas, Inc., Magnum Development, Haddington Ventures
Department of Energy - $504.4 million loan guarantee
Under development. Loan issued in June 2022.
Flying, building and heating more sustainably in the future — that is the goal of the “Westküste 100” real-world laboratory. The aim is to map and scale a regional hydrogen economy on an industrial scale. The conditions for this are unique, especially on the west coast of Schleswig-Holstein. Here, a strong wind energy region and excellent geological storage conditions meet innovative companies that want to actively shape the future and make an important contribution to achieving climate protection goals. Hydrogen is planned to be stored in a salt formation and distributed using pipelines.
EDF Germany, Holcim Germany, OGE, Ørsted, Raffinerie Heide, Stadtwerke Heide, thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions and Thüga
Partly in operation
The Leipzig Hydrogen Value chain for Europe (LHyVE) partners will generate CO2-free energy and would like to completely dispense with fossil fuels in the future. With a cross-sector link between electricity, heat and mobility, we use digital solutions to make the best possible use of the effects of green hydrogen. The goal of the project is to connect the European H2 infrastructure; production sites, storage sites (salt formation) and utilisation via pipeline. This will create supply security and enable the transport of hydrogen from and to the region.
In this way, we significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Leipzig and the region. Through links to other H2 projects and regions, we enable the transfer of knowledge and thus sustainably ensure a demand-oriented supply of the environmentally friendly energy carrier.
Leipziger Stadtwerke, Ontras, Pörner Gruppe (EDL Anlagenbau GmbH), VNG
Funding via Important Projects of Common European Interests (IPCEI)
Funding approved in December 2022.
Transport infrastructures for short, medium and long distances are urgently needed. Existing gas grid and gas storage infrastructures could be used for this purpose, but new transport technologies are also needed. In both cases, there is still a massive need for research. For example, suitable standards, safety regulations and international rules are still lacking. In addition, numerous transport technologies have so far only been tested on a small scale.
The lead project TransHyDE will therefore comprehensively develop transport technologies and do so in a technology-open manner along various possible development paths.
Under this umbrella project there are individual demonstration projects focusing of the following aspects:
Max-Planck-Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion, Fraunhofer Institute Energy Infrastructures and Geothermal Systems, cru21
139 Mio EUR over the next 4 years (Federal Ministry of Education and Research, BMBF)
Started, partly in operation.
OGE and RWE have developed the national infrastructure project “H2ercules”, which is intended to supply consumers in Germany’s south and west with domestically produced green hydrogen from the north of the country, in addition to imported sources. This will involve connecting up the electrolyser capacities that are currently being planned and developing more besides. RWE wants to create up to 1 GW of additional electrolyser capacity as part of the H2ercules project. For the connection component, OGE is planning to put 1,500 km of pipelines in place. For the most part, this will mean converting pipelines from the existing natural gas network to hydrogen, supplemented by newly constructed facilities. Converting natural gas pipelines is not only the more cost-efficient solution, but it also allows for a faster schedule. The system is expected to be supplemented by the planned hydrogen storages of RWE.
The current plan is to complete the project in three stages between 2026 and 2030, in order to connect industries to the hydrogen supply as soon as possible. The aim of this collaboration across multiple value levels is to resolve the chicken-and-egg problem on a super-sized scale and also smooth the way forward for other projects.
Partnership between OGE and RWE
Based on a preliminary estimate, total investments for setting up electrolysers and the pipeline infrastructure will come to about €3.5 billion, just under €2 billion of which for the pipelines and €1.5 billion for an additional 1 GW of electrolyser capacity by 2030. Costs are excluding the costs for required H2 storage.
In the HyCavMobil project (Hydrogen Cavern for Mobility), the storage in salt caverns and subsequent use of hydrogen in the field of fuel cell mobility is being researched and evaluated. The HyCavMobil project is testing the conditions under which pure hydrogen can be stored in caverns. Under the real conditions of a storage well in rock salt, this pure hydrogen will be stored and retrieved in a test cavern of EWE Gasspeicher GmbH under controlled conditions, and various aspects of the influence of pressure and temperature as well as the materials used will be investigated. It is relevant here whether the hydrogen still meets the high quality and purity requirements of fuel cell mobility after it has been removed from the cavern and, if so, how appropriate conditioning can take place.
Within the Institute for Networked Energy Systems, the departments of Urban and Building Technologies and Energy Systems Technology are involved in the project. The research tasks include material investigations, ensuring hydrogen quality and integrating a hydrogen cavern into the existing energy system.
EWE & DLR (German Aerospace Center)
Total Investments: 10 million EUR
EWE: 4 million EUR
Governmental Funding: 6 million EUR
This project proposes to develop a first-of-its-kind affordable very-large-scale liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage tank for international trade applications, primarily to be installed at import and export terminals. The project aims a large-scale tank design that can be used in the range between 20,000 m3 and 100,000 m3 (1,400-7,100 metric tonnes of LH2).
Key success criteria for the large-scale design include:
Shell International Exploration and Production, Inc.
CB&I Storage Solutions LLC (CB&I), MCDERMOTT, GenH2 Corp (GenH2), NASA Kennedy Space Center (NASA/KSC), University of Houston (UH)
Total Project Budget: $12 M. $6 M from DOE, $3 M from Shell, $3 M from CB&I
Project started: September 2021, Project end date: August 2024
This demonstration project aims to establish an international supply chain by utilizing the “Organic chemical hydride method” to transport hydrogen delivered from unused energy from the place of supply to the place of demand. Hydrogen will be procured in Brunei and transported by ship to Kawasaki, Japan in liquid form at ambient temperature and pressure. Hydrogen gas will then be extracted from the liquid in Kawasaki and supplied to consumers.
AHEAD had received fund from NEDO to demonstrate “Organic chemical hydride method” technology and to develop hydrogen supply chain between Japan and Brunei Darussalam.
We have built hydrogeneration plant in Brunei and de-hydrogeneration plant in Kawasaki, Japan to demonstrate hydrogen supply chain using Organic chemical hydride method between countries. The demonstration project successfully ended in FY2020, and Chiyoda Corporation is introducing this technology to other countries, including the Netherlands (Port of Rotterdam) and Singapore.
Japan’s National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) established Fukushima Renewable Energy Institute, AIST (FREA) in Fukushima Prefecture in April 2014, to promote R&D into renewable energy. FREA has two basic missions: The promotion of R&D into renewable energy, which is open to the world; and to make a contribution to industrial clusters and reconstruction. The new institute was established as a novel research base to develop innovative technologies in collaboration with domestic and international partners.
FREA has 10 research units, among which two teams are focusing on hydrogen technologies:
• National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)
Mainly from Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI)
Under Green Innovation Fund, FREA is working on renewable hydrogen production project using water-electrolysis. The project is to support the scalable electrolyzers (alkaline and PEM) for modularization and to establish performance evaluation technologies for electrolyzers.
This project is a commercialization demonstration aimed at building a MCH (methylcyclohexane) commercial supply chain while establishing dehydrogenation technology, using oil refining facilities at refineries in order to achieve a hydrogen supply cost of 30 yen/Nm3 in 2030.
It also aims to establish an international market by standardizing the quality of MCH and supplying licenses through technology packaging.
ENEOS has received a grant of approximately 48 billion Yen from NEDO Green Innovation Fund for commercialization demonstration phase in FY2021-2030.
This project is investigating trends in research and development in various countries to establish MCH production and treatment technologies. It’s also surveying and studying overseas trends and evaluation methods for low-carbon hydrogen LCA.
Furthermore, based on the results of these surveys, candidate sites for hydrogen sources are being narrowed down for demonstration.
The final goal of this research and development project is to develop a three-ton tank trailer for liquid hydrogen to transport liquid hydrogen from a liquefied hydrogen plant to a liquefied hydrogen charging station.
The development of transportation technology from liquefied hydrogen plants to charging stations is very important and essential to expand hydrogen as an automotive fuel. This R&D project contains seeks to increase the capacity of liquid hydrogen trailers.
Currently, this R&D project has been carried out about half of the total period. A two-ton trailer, a preliminary step in developing a three-ton liquid hydrogen trailer, is being designed and evaluated, and a complemented three-ton tank trailer will be produced based on the results.
The purpose of this pilot project was to demonstrate an integrated hydrogen supply chain encompassing production, storage and transportation in delivering liquefied hydrogen to Japan. The pilot project integrated coal gasification and gas-refining, hydrogen gas transportation and liquefaction, liquefied hydrogen storage and loading, shipbuilding and operation of a specialised liquefied hydrogen carrier.
Key elements of the HESC pilot project include:
Hydrogen production from the coal gasification began in January 2021. In December 2021, the Suiso Frontier had left Japan to pick up its first cargo of liquefied hydrogen in Australia. The carrier arrived in Australia on 21 January 2022 to begin loading for the return journey to January 2022, the Suiso Frontier left Hastings with its cargo of 2.6 tonnes of liquid hydrogen which (in February 2022) was unloaded at the receiving terminal in the port of Kobe, Japan. This marked the completion of the HESC Pilot Project. The Suiso Frontier was the world’s first marine carrier to transport liquid hydrogen. It is approximately 116 metres long and 19 metres wide and will use a cryogenic storage tank with vacuum insulation to contain 88 tonnes of liquid hydrogen. Installation of the storage tank occurred in March 2020 and the carrier underwent operational testing successfully in the coastal waters of Japan in October 2020. A completion of pilot project report has been published by the project.
The Enbridge Power-to-Gas (P2G) facility began operations in Markham, Ontario in July 2018. A 2.5 MW PEM electrolyzer from Hydrogenics was installed under contract to the Ontario Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO) to help balance electricity supply and demand and ensure system reliability. The electrolyzer converts surplus renewable energy to hydrogen, which can be stored and then used with a fuel cell to supplement the energy supply when demand is high. The electrolyzer can produce up to 1 tonne/day of hydrogen and the plant has 8MW of on-site hydrogen storage. In 2020, Enbridge received approval from the Ontario Energy Board to begin construction of a hydrogen blending unit co-located with the P2G facility, with hydrogen being blended into Enbridge’s natural gas system to reduce the carbon intensity of the natural gas delivered.
Enbridge, Cummins Inc
Supported by Sustainable Development Technology Canada (SDTC) with a $5.2 million funding award.
The blending facility began operations in January 2022, with hydrogen being blended into Enbridge’s natural gas system to reduce the carbon intensity of the natural gas delivered to 3,600 customers in the Markham community. Up to 2% of hydrogen by volume is being blended into the natural gas system, reducing GHG emissions by an estimated 117 tCO2/yr. A project, located in Gatineau, QC, is scheduled for online service in 2024 with up to 15% hydrogen serving 43,000 customers. Hydrogen will be a 20-MW electrolyzer (green-H2).
Hystories will conduct techno-economic feasibility studies and provide insights into underground hydrogen storage for decision makers in government and industry.
The project objectives are to:
Geostock, NORCE as part of CO2Geonet
Final conference presenting findings held in May 2023. Publications related to this project can be accessed at: https://hystories.eu/publications-hystories/
Gassco leads the Norwegian part of a joint feasibility study that shall verify whether a hydrogen value chain from Norway to Germany is feasible both technically and commercially. The aim is to increase the maturity of a hydrogen value chain. Germany sees Norway as a partner for the production and supply of hydrogen. Norway welcomes German initiatives to develop the demand side in a future hydrogen market.
Feasibility study to be completed in 2023, with potential start-up in 2030.
The Deep Purple pilot project consortium will design, build and test a physical land-based pilot at TechnipFMC's Norwegian headquarters in Kongsberg. The pilot will include an electrolyser, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, and energy control systems as well as the development and testing of an advanced control and advisory system and a dynamic process simulator.
This project seeks to leverage knowledge and experience from the Oil and Gas Industry to develop underwater subsea storage of the hydrogen produced off-shore.
TechnipFMC, Slåttland Group, Vattenfall, Repsol, Nel Hydrogen, UMOE, Advanced Composites, ABB, DNV, Sintef, University of South East Norway, Energy Valley, Ocean Hyway Cluster, GCE Ocean Technology, Innovation Norway
9 million EUR
In 2021 use cases, engineering and procurement took place, 2022-23 construction and testing underway. Industrial scale demonstration to start in 2023.
Yara International has pre-ordered 15 floating bunkering terminals from Azane Fuel Solutions. The bunker terminals shall cover the Scandinavian market and will be either barge-based or land-based. Both terminal designs have storage tanks and processing capacity for the safe storage, handling and transfer of ammonia, for use as a fuel or for ammonia powered ships.
The lack of bunkering infrastructure, sufficient distribution networks and current regulations are barriers for ship-owners today. With combined areas of expertise and competencies, Amon and ECONNECT Energy saw an opportunity to merge common interest for a shift in the industry for greener energy sources. AZANE fills the remaining gap for clean ammonia fuel in the value chain, and by doing so pushes the transition to a sustainable shipping industry.
Azane Fuel Solutions, Yara International, Amon Maritime, Econnect Energy
EUR 8.6 million
At the Raglan Nickel Mine in Nunavik, Quebec, hydrogen is used as an energy storage solution to reduce diesel consumption. During Phase I and II (2015, 2018) of the project, two wind turbines (6MW) were installed and combined with a 3-tiered energy storage system. A 315kW electrolyzer converts excess renewable energy supply into hydrogen for storage. A micro-grid controller manages the supply and demand, producing a smooth power output using a flywheel and battery combination to filter out large wind variations. A 200kW fuel cell fueled by the stored hydrogen or a diesel generator is used for backup power when needed.
Combined project investment: $40 million. Government funding of $18.9 million from NRCan’s ecoEnergy Innovation Initiative, Energy Innovation Program (EIP), and Clean Energy for Rural and Remote Communities (CERRC) programs.
Phase 1 and 2 were completed by 2018.
The Blue-H2 project seeks to identify the lowest cost and lowest environmental impact pathways for blue H2 production. Optimized H2 transportation networks including pipelines, ships (including ammonia), and rail transport will be developed and modelled connecting both H2 and CO2 sources with H2 and CO2 user and storage reservoirs.
Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), Canmet ENERGY Ottawa and Verennes, Canadian Nuclear Laboratories
Supported and funded by NRCan's Office of Energy Research and Development. Starting in April 2023, NRCan will be providing $2.9 million in funding over 5 years.
Official start of new project in April 2023. Previous project activities include process simulation and TEA of CCUS-H2 production across Canada.
This project seeks to produce green ammonia by replacing the hydrogen produced through the SMR process by hydrogen produced via electrolysis powered by onsite solar PV. Ammonia is a promising way to store and transport hydrogen.
In the first phase of the project a 10 MW electrolyser will produce up to 640 tonnes of hydrogen per year. This hydrogen will be a zero-carbon feedstock for Yara’s ammonia production facility in Karratha to produce 3630 tonnes of ammonia per year.
Engie, Mitsui, Yara Fertilisers
Total project cost: $87.1 m AUD ARENA funding $47.5 m AUD, WA State Funding 2 mAUD
Under construction, commercial operation due H1 2024
In some recent studies the reaction between hydrogen and sandstone rock and its implications on geological storage of hydrogen in sandstone formations have been investigated. However, experimental data for reaction/interaction between hydrogen and the calcite mineral under storage conditions are not available. Because the majority of Saudi Arabia's reservoirs are carbonates, Saudi Aramco has requested that studies be conducted to address this issue.
The specific objectives of the proposed study are the following:
This study investigates possible hydrogen production, storage, and transportation from three locations in Saudi Arabia (the North West, Central West, and North East sites) to global markets. This study proposes an optimization model for flexible production and transportation of islanded green hydrogen and ammonia. The model suggests optimum operation, production, and transportation based on the location, wind and solar resources in Saudi Arabia.
The Alberta Zero Emissions Truck Electrification Collaboration (AZETEC) is a first of its kind industry led project that will involve the design, manufacture, and testing of two long-range hydrogen fuel cell trucks for operation year-round between Calgary and Edmonton. The 64-tonne B-train tractor-trailers will be powered by fuel cell technology from Ballard Power Systems, integrated into a Freightliner Class 8 truck platform. Fueling infrastructure, provided by HTEC, will be located at a centralized depot in Edmonton with hydrogen supply from Air Products and Praxair. This project intends to demonstrate the viability of heavy-duty fuel cell trucks to reduce GHG emissions while meeting the unique demands of operations in Alberta including double-trailer operation, heavier gross vehicle weights (65,000 kg GVW), long-distance hauling (700km), and cold weather.
At the Edmonton fueling station, the hydrogen arrives as a compressed gas (450 bars, power cube trailor) where cascade refueling takes place to fill the vehicles to 350 bars. Of the 540 kg H2 delivery to the station, about 40% (216 kg is useable). At the Calgary (Suncor) station, the hydrogen arrives in a similar way, but the station will also have compressors so can use about 80% of the H2 in the power cubes (432 kg) before the need to be refilled.
Alberta Motor Transport Association (AMTA), AZETEC. Partners include: Hydrogen Technology and Energy Corporation, Zen Clean Energy Solutions, Canadian Energy Systems Analysis Research, Bison Transport, Trimac Transportation and Suncor Energy
Project value: $18 million. Emissions Reductions Alberta is supporting this project with funding of $7.3 million and the Government of Canada invested $2.3M.
The project, which began in 2019, will begin vehicle demonstration in Q3 2023.
Australian Gas Infrastructure Group (AGIG) is targeting 10% renewable (carbon-free) gas by volume by 2030. Our aim is to fully decarbonise our distribution networks by 2040 as a stretch target and by no later than 2050. This is consistent with Australian state and territory ambitions which collectively target being net zero carbon by 2050. HyP SA is an Australian first and demonstrates that renewable blended gas can be safely, and reliability delivered to homes in an Australian context, which is the first step to lowering greenhouse gas emissions.
Australian Gas Networks (AGN), part of the Australian Gas Infrastructure Group (AGIG)
Estimated cost: AUD$14.5 million
Announced funding: AUD$9.6 million – AGN/AGIG, AUD$4.9 million – South Australian Government Renewable Technology Fund
In May 2021, Hydrogen Park South Australia (HyP SA) became Australia’s largest operating electrolyser, and the first to deliver a volume of 5% renewable hydrogen blended with natural gas to more than 700 homes on the existing gas network.A network expansion to deliver renewable gas to an additional 3,000 homes and businesses is underway and is due to be completed in early 2023.
By blending renewable hydrogen in the southern part of metropolitan Adelaide suburb of Mitchell Park, HyP SA enables the local community to start to reduce the amount of carbon in their existing gas supply without needing to change the way they cook, clean, or heat.
HyP SA’s delivery is also a key first step to demonstrating existing gas infrastructure can be used to supply renewable gas to customers to achieve our climate targets, whilst retaining its reliability and energy security benefits.
Since the lunch of HyP SA in May 2021, over 3,000 stakeholders including industry leaders, school children, international dignitaries and political figures have toured the facility.
This project seeks to demonstrate on-demand H2 evolution from formic acid and formic acid blends using a demonstrator-scale continuous operation reactor. The goal is to demonstrate homogeneous catalyst can meet the DOE target flow rate of 300 kg H2 per hr in a continuous flow reactor.
University of Southern California, Los Alamos National Laboratory
US Department of Energy. Total project US $1.25 million.
Project start date: 1 October 2019, End date: 31 May 2023
Humber Low Carbon Pipelines (HLCP) forms part of the East Coast Cluster project, an industrial cluster project in the Northeast of England that aims to be net zero by 2040. HLCP would provide the infrastructural backbone to the cluster’s decarbonisation as it includes parallel development of Hydrogen and CO2 pipelines in the Humber region. Development of the pipeline design and routing were supported by UKRI ISCF funding. The scope of work that attracted the funding included the parallel pipelines from the Drax Power Station running along the South bank of the Humber river before crossing the Humber River (via tunnel) and terminating at Easington. The scope includes provision of connection facilities for several significant off takers in the area, including Drax Power Station, the SSE Keadby Power Station, British Steel, the Uniper hydrogen HUB, and Equinor at Saltend Chemical Plant.
The Humber region is the UK's highest-emitting industrial zone. It is combined with Teeside, an adjacent industrial zone, to form the East Coast Cluster. The East Coast Cluster could capture and store up to 27 million tonnes of CO2 annually by the mid-2030s, accounting for almost 50% of all the emissions from the UK’s industrial clusters. The Humber Low Carbon pipeline will be a key enabler in this roadmap.
Developed by National Grid and Equinor as part of the Northern Endurance Partnership (NEP). Current member organisations of the Northern Endurance Partnership are: BP, Equinor, and TotalEnergies
The hydrogen project has been developed in parallel to an onshore CO2 system. The total capex for onshore Humber (both CO2 and Hydrogen) is estimated to be c.£1bn. Funding to date has been provided by: UK Research and Innovation (UKRI), Industrial Strategy Challenge Fund (ISCF), National Grid, Drax, Uniper, SSE, Equinor
The next stages of project delivery are yet to be confirmed as the UK Government considers the logical sequence for its support in wider CCUS deployment. Government will launch a process later this year to enable further expansion of the already-awarded Track-1 clusters, beyond their initial deployment, identifying and selecting projects - which could include those in the Humber - and their associated stores, as they become viable, to be operational by 2030.
Aldbrough Hydrogen Pathfinder would unite hydrogen production, storage and power generation in one location by the middle of this decade. Located at SSE Thermal and Equinor’s existing Aldbrough Gas Storage site, it will support the evidence base for wider deployment of flexible hydrogen power in the UK’s net zero journey and will demonstrate the interactions between hydrogen electrolysis, hydrogen cavern storage and 100% hydrogen dispatchable power. The concept would see green power sourced from grid through Renewable PPAs, in compliance with the Low Carbon Hydrogen Standard. Hydrogen would then be produced via a 35MW electrolyser before being stored in a converted salt cavern and then used in a 100% hydrogen-fired turbine, exporting flexible green power back to grid at times of system need. The Aldbrough Hydrogen Pathfinder aims to produce hydrogen and start filling the cavern by 2025, subject to planning consents and reaching a financial investment decision next year.
The Project will be financed directly from SSE Thermal’s and SSE PLC Group’s own financial resources. The Project has applied for Government Funding by way of CapEx support for hydrogen production through the Net Zero Hydrogen Fund and revenue support through the Hydrogen Business Model.
In March 2023, the project was selected to proceed to the Due Diligence Phase of the UK Government’s Net Zero Hydrogen Fund. The project development continues, with pre-FEED complete and FEED due to start imminently. Siemens Energy has been appointed to deliver the FEED programme. The electrolyser for the project has been selected and enabling works for the project are already planned, subject to planning consent. A planning application is expected to be lodged later this year, with the first public consultation events already held.
Hynet North West Hydrogen Pipeline is a 125km pipeline is designed to decarbonise industry and enable green growth in the Northwest of England. It will provide the infrastructure to deliver hydrogen from large scale hydrogen production at Stanlow, for storage near Northwich, industrial demand across the Northwest, for existing power generation sites in the region, and for blending into the existing natural gas supply. It is essential to unlocking the benefits and ambitions of the wider HyNet North West programme, a portfolio of new infrastructure aiming to produce, transport and store low carbon hydrogen across the North West and Wales.
Although there are a number of clean hydrogen transport and storage projects in development in the UK, the HyNet North West Hydrogen Pipeline is set to be the UK’s first 100 per cent hydrogen pipeline network at scale. This vital for the success of the wider HyNet North West programme and achieving the UK’s Net Zero by 2050 target.
Cadent Gas Ltd
Detailed design and costing still underway but expected to cost £0.5-0.75bn to construct. Development phases funded by the UK Government, Gas consumers, and Cadent Gas Ltd. It is anticipated the project’s construction will be funded through a Government-awarded hydrogen transport business model. Details of this support at this stage are still to be confirmed.
The pipeline project is approaching the end of the FEED study with an application for a Development Consent Order planned for later this year.
Delivering a fast-cycling Hydrogen storage of 33,000 tons (equivalent of 1.3 TWh of working gas volume), to enable peak consumption and grid balancing in a cluster area (HyNet) envisioning 30 TWh of Hydrogen generation and consumption by 2030.
INEOS Inovyn, member of the HyNet consortium – Storengy UK
Funding being investigated in 2023 : co-funding UK Department of Energy Supply and Net Zero – INEOS Inovyn – Storengy
This project seeks to accelerate the use of carriers for hydrogen storage & transport by:
The goal is to enable carbon neutral carbon technologies, meeting national priorities for environmentally clean energy independence.
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of Hawaii, HyMARC Seedlings (U. Southern California, Montana State U., Washington State U.), Korean Institute of Science and Technology, University of Geneva
DOE total funding to date $5.75 million.
Project started in 2018. To date the project has: