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What is it?

Hydrogen is produced via solid oxide electrolysis, then fed into a second reactor in which it is used as an input for ammonia synthesis. The heat from the ammonia production step is then fed back to the solid oxide electrolysis cell for further hydrogen production.

Why is it important?

Integrated hydrogen production and ammonia synthesis presents an opportunity to make use of the heat generated from ammonia synthesis step, reducing the amount of input energy required for the solid oxide electrolysis step.


  • Volumetric hydrogen density: High (10.7kg H2 / m3 at 10 bar and 25°C)
  • Gravimetric hydrogen density: High (17.8% by mass)
  • Storage conditions: Liquid at ambient temperature, 10-11 bar pressure


  • Downstream process well established
  • Heat integration makes use of heat from exothermic downstream reaction, supplies it back to hydrogen generation reaction
  • No air separation unit required to provide a nitrogen input for ammonia synthesis


  • Limitations largely dependent on type of ammonia synthesis method employed. Conventional synthesis is carried out via the Haber-Bosch process, which would necessitate an intermediate compression of hydrogen between steps

RD&D priorities

  • Develop means to economically manufacture and implement cells at scale
  • Prevent degradation of solid oxide electrolysers
  • Develop system integration concepts to engineer a complete integrated system
  • Reduce system capital cost

Known active organisations

  • No active institutions found in study

Other opportunities like this

  • Ammonia is synthesised by reacting hydrogen with nitrogen gas at high temperatures and pressures.

  • Hydrogen is reacted with toluene to form methylcyclohexane (MCH), a compound that can be transported at ambient temperature and pressure.

  • Methanol is conventionally synthesised at large scale from synthesis gas (or syngas), a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide typically at an H₂/CO ratio of 1.8 ~ 2.2, derived through steam reforming of natural gas or steam gasification of coal.

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