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What is it?

Dark fermentation and photofermentation processes occur sequentially in a series of reactors.

Why is it important?

Hybrid fermentation allows extraction of additional hydrogen from the effluents of the typical dark fermentation process.


  • Inputs: Organic matter (biomass), water, light for photo-fermentation step
  • By-products: Carbon dioxide
  • Operating temperature: Ambient


  • Maximises hydrogen yield from source material
  • Makes use of untreated dark-fermentation effluents (which would otherwise require further handling or present an environmental hazard)
  • Biocatalysts are inexpensive and biodegradable
  • Could use organic waste as substrate


  • Large surface area required for photo-fermentation
  • Operation variability depending on solar irradiation supply for the photofermentation step

RD&D priorities

  • Improve substrate conversion efficiency
  • Improve reactor design

Known active organisations

  • No institutions found in study

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