Blog icon


What is it?

Hydrogen is liquefied and stored at -253 °C, at ambient-moderate pressures, in cryogenic tanks through a multi-stage process of compression and cooling.

Why is it important?

More financially viable where high density hydrogen storage is required under limited space, or where a larger roundtrip distance is involved.


  • Volumetric hydrogen density: 70.85 kg/m3at 1 bar
  • Storage conditions: 2- 10 bar, 20K
  • Well-to-tank efficiency range: 20-25%. The energy required to liquify the hydrogen is 6- 8 kW/kg LH2. Well-to-tank efficiency includes from the feedstock natural gas consumed to the low heating value of H2 delivered to tank


  • Higher volumetric storage capacity than compressed gas
  • Fewer evaporation losses than typical compression mechanisms


  • Requires advanced and more expensive storage material
  • Liquefaction requires complex technical plant
  • Liquefied hydrogen incurs boil-off losses.
  • To be liquefied, up to 40% of energy content of hydrogen is required

RD&D priorities

  • Reduce boil-off (i.e. vaporisation) rates
  • Improve engineering, insulation, heat exchangers and coolants
  • Improve insulation material construction techniques to achieve larger scale and better insulated tanks
  • Improve hydrogen compression technology
  • Study and analyse the effects of vessel shape designs, stratification, and thermal overfill
  • Conduct thermal-fluid dynamical analysis on the effects of flashing during the transport of liquid hydrogen from bulk storage to atmospheric on-site storage
  • Develop low cost catalysts for improved ortho‐para conversion, and ortho‐para ratio measurement capability, to reduce boil off rate
  • Conduct studies of impurity freeze‐out in H2 production

Known active organisations

  • Monash University
  • Queensland University of Technology
  • The University of New South Wales
  • The University of Sydney
  • The University of Western Australia

Other opportunities like this

Contact us

Find out how we can help you and your business. Get in touch using the form below and our experts will get in contact soon!

CSIRO will handle your personal information in accordance with the Privacy Act 1988 (Cth) and our Privacy Policy.

First name must be filled in

Surname must be filled in

I am representing *

Please choose an option

Please provide a subject for the enquriy

0 / 100

We'll need to know what you want to contact us about so we can give you an answer

0 / 1900

You shouldn't be able to see this field. Please try again and leave the field blank.