What is it?
Ammonia is synthesised from hydrogen and nitrogen via one of a variety of methods. Ammonia can then be transported, and the hydrogen extracted again at the point of use via a thermal decomposition and separation process.
Why is it important?
Ammonia can be transported under mild conditions and be utilised directly or converted back into hydrogen for use.
- Volumetric hydrogen density: High (10.7kg H2 / m3 at 10 bar and 25°C)
- Gravimetric hydrogen density: High (17.8% by mass)
- Storage conditions: Liquid at ambient temperature, 10-11 bar pressure
- Energy efficiency: Varies depending on synthesis approach. See Haber-Bosch synthesis method for conventional synthesis
- Cracking leads to formation of nitrogen gas, which is innocuous and can be released back into the atmosphere
- Can be stored at mild temperature and pressure for transport
- Can leverage existing ammonia handling and transport infrastructure
- High Gravimetric hydrogen density: 17.8% by mass
- High Volumetric hydrogen density -10.7kg H2 / 100L at 10 bar and 25°C
- Requires cracking at point of use to extract hydrogen
- See limitations for each synthesis method
- High toxicity of ammonia vapours
- Note: Various ammonia technologies in development cover the whole TRL scale
- Develop higher efficiency and lower cost synthesis methods
Known active organisations
- The Australian National University
- Monash University
- The University of Adelaide
- The University of Newcastle
- The University of Sydney
- The University of Technology Sydney
- The University of Western Australia