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The challenge

Agricultural transport costs are high

[Image appears of an aerial view looking down on trains moving along tracks and the camera pans around and then the image changes to show an aerial view of a highway through a farming area]

Dr Andrew Higgins: Transport infrastructure is essential to moving more than 100 million tonnes of Australian agriculture and forest products from origin to destination per year.

[Image changes to show Dr Andrew Higgins talking to the camera and text appears: Dr Andrew Higgins, CSIRO Research Scientist and TraNSIT Leader]

To help government and industry make informed decisions on infrastructure investment,

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they rely on a comprehensive set of data around supply chains and freight movements.

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In 2013 CSIRO started the development of the Transport Network Strategic Investment Tool, or TraNSIT as it’s called.

[Image changes to show a map of Australia showing the road freight movements on the map and a list of the commodities on the left and text appears: Annual road freight movements around Australia]

TraNSIT provides the most detailed map of supply chains and freight movements ever produced covering more than 20 million vehicle trips per year in Australia,

[Image changes to show a herd of cattle]

covering more than 100 commodities from agriculture, mining, fuel, through to general freight.

[Image changes to show a close view of cattle’s legs moving through a race, and then the image changes to show an aerial view of penned cattle, and then the image changes to show Andrew talking]

So TraNSIT was originally developed for the livestock industry in Northern Australia before it was extended to all agriculture movements across Australia, covering about 98% of the agricultural sector. It is now extended to all of freight across Australia and is used for many major national infrastructure projects such as the $9 billion inland rail.

[Images move through to show Andrew looking at an Australian map on a computer screen, Andrew talking to the camera, rail freight cars at the docks, and vegetables on a market stall]

The success of TraNSIT in Australia has led to its extension to other countries in South East Asia, particularly Vietnam and Indonesia, really addressing the freight challenges of moving agriculture from production to, to the markets in the urban areas.

[Image changes to show Andrew talking to the camera]

In 2017 the rapidly rising demand for TraNSIT led to the development of TraNSIT Web which is a web based tool that allows industry and government to access key information from TraNSIT on a home computer or office computer without technical expertise.

[Images move through to show Andrew looking at a map of Australia on a computer screen and scrolling over the map, cows penned up, and a mature crop in a paddock]

Being able to analyse Australia’s transport of food and other commodities has never been so important at the click of a button.

[Image changes to show Andrew talking to the camera and then the image changes to show Andrew pointing to an Australian map on a computer screen]

The tool is now helping government reduce costs of transport through more informed infrastructure benefits.

[Image changes to show an aerial view looking down on cars moving along a highway and then the image changes to show Andrew talking to the camera]

This is benefitting farmers, processors, and having other benefits as well too such as improved safety and reduced environmental impacts.

[Image changes to show the CSIRO logo and text appears: CSIRO, Australia’s National Science Agency]

In Australia, transport infrastructure is essential for moving more than 100 million tonnes of agricultural and forest product output annually across huge distances.

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In Australia, transport infrastructure is essential for moving more than 100 million tonnes of agricultural and forest product output annually, with transport distances often over 1000km between production and markets. Infrastructure investment and regulatory changes can substantially reduce logistics costs between agricultural enterprises. Understanding what investment and regulatory changes mean to supply chain flows and transport costs across all enterprises is critical to getting the best value from investment options available.

Our response

Modelling the most cost-effective transport options

With the support of industry as well as the Australian and state/territory governments, we commenced development of the Transport Network Strategic Investment Tool (TraNSIT) in 2013. Our researchers have used the tool to provide the most detailed map of routes and costings across Australia's entire agricultural and forestry supply chain.

Image appears of a map of Australia showing coloured dots to denote the various towns on the map and a key appears in the bottom right corner listing the commodities beside coloured dots and text appears: Annual road freight movements around Australia.

Image shows coloured networks of transport lines covering the map linking the various towns and the TraNSIT logo appears in the bottom right corner of the map

An animation showing the annual road freight movements around Australia

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TraNSIT maps millions of vehicle trips across thousands of supply chains between production and domestic and export markets. For each supply chain path, it selects the least-cost travel path as well as vehicle configuration, accommodating road conditions, driver fatigue regulations and vehicle decoupling costs. It outputs information on freight paths, detailed transport costs and critical link analysis, providing valuable input to inform infrastructure investment and regulatory decisions. By highlighting key areas where infrastructure investment would be most beneficial, the tool in turn helps reduce travel distance and time, saves fuel costs, cuts down on wear and tear to vehicles and produce, and minimises stress for both truck drivers and livestock.

The TraNSIT tool was originally applied to the beef industry before being extended to 98 per cent of all agriculture transport across Australia through an initiative in the Agricultural Competitiveness White Paper (released in 2015). More recently it has been extended to include fuels, forestry, mining, manufacturing and general freight. It has also been applied to freight transport on the proposed Melbourne to Brisbane Inland Rail project.

The tool's application has been extended beyond Australia, to Indonesia and Vietnam, where it is being used to assess transport costs in local and national food supply chains, through Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) and Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) funded projects.

The tool currently accommodates over 125 commodities representing more than 12 million vehicle and 200,000 rail trips per annum. Development is ongoing and further commodities and modes of transport are continually being incorporated.

The TraNSIT computer modelling tool works by analysing every possible combination of transport routes and modes (road and rail) in the agriculture supply chain. Picture by ARTC

Applications of TraNSIT include:

  • Analysing the impact of road upgrades such as sealing, first/last mile improvements, access to higher-productivity vehicles
  • Informing improvements to rail infrastructure including line upgrades, new freight hubs and integration with road transport
  • Testing the sensitivity of the road and rail network to natural disasters or other disruptions and their impact on freight access to markets
  • Optimising supply chains in the private sector
  • Forecasting freight volumes, supply chain dynamics and bottlenecks under future production and climate scenarios
  • Testing regulatory changes such as driver fatigue, road and rail pricing and tolls
  • Comparing infrastructure investment options that maximise transport cost reductions.

TraNSIT has been used to improve infrastructure in the following ways:

  • Informed 60 road upgrade submissions for the Northern Australia Beef Roads Fund
  • Informed the $3.5 billion Roads of Strategic Importance program
  • Assisted the planning of 'future freight' at a regional scale for different locations across Australia
  • Identified capacity constraints to air freight for horticulture in Australia
  • Addressed supply chain inefficiencies and cross border bottlenecks in Indonesia and Vietnam
  • Estimated average transport reduction costs of $76 per tonne for shifting transport of east coast agriculture from road to rail, or $31 per tonne to shift from coastal rail to inland rail
  • Estimated transport cost (plantation to processing or port) of $23 billion for 800 million cubic metres over 25 years, for all Australia's plantation forestry
  • Determined cost reductions of up to $10 per tonne in grain transport in NSW from upgrades to intermodal freight facilities combined with road upgrades, rail track upgrades and new train combinations
  • Provided input into regional freight and supply chain plans across Australia
  • Provided a new capacity to estimate the impact of road improvements for the Australian tourism industry
  • 'Transit Web' provides government and industry with the capacity to test infrastructure and regulatory scenarios.

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